The ‘State of the Art’ in Aluminum Extrusion Simulation Using the Finite Element
J. Walters, M. Foster, and A. Bandar
Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation, Columbus, OH, USA
Track: EXTRUSION/DIE THEORETICAL - Benchmark, Finite-Element Method, Metal Flow
ABSTRACT—The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful numerical tool for the simulation of metal
forming processes that has been applied to metal forming for decades. Modeling the extrusion process has been challenging, due to the long simulation times associated with the extreme deformation of extrusion. Issues include long computing time, the singularity at sharp die corners, and meshing/remeshing issues. The end and transient effects can be studied in the extrudate, including bending and twisting, using a traditional Updated Lagrangian (UL) simulation. This is an excellent method of capturing the weld seam behavior in parts extruded in a bridge die. Alternatively, the general deformation can be captured using the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method, which has matured with recent development effort. With the ALE method, the free surface of the extrudate is updated based on the velocity field. Extrusion simulation based on the UL and ALE methods will be discussed. Examples of die stress and deflection analysis will also be presented. As the computing and modeling technologies become more mature, practical commercial applications are becoming feasible. A wide range of complex aluminum extrusion examples will be presented in this paper, including validation, in an educational format. The commercial FEM program, DEFORM™ from Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation is used for the simulations in this paper.
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